Wednesday, January 18, 2023

Meet Radiator Team at Mobile World Congress Barcelona 2023!

Radiator Software is exhibiting at MWC23 Barcelona! 

We are delighted to announce that Radiator team will once again be exhibiting at the world’s largest connectivity event of the year: Mobile World Congress 2023 held at Fira Gran Via in Barcelona on 27 February – 2 March.

Our theme for this event is the capabilities of Radiator SIM Pack; a standalone support SIM-based authentication methods with use cases like WiFi offloading, in-flight connectivity and OpenRoaming. To prepare for the event next month we are hosting a webinar about SIM Authentication with Radiator next week on 24th and 26th of January. More information and sign up at our webinars page.

Where can you find the Radiator team?

Finland country pavillion, booth 7G41.

We are exhibiting with fellow Finns in hall 7. The event team will consist of both commercial and technical Radiator experts so whichever Radiator topic you have in mind, we have got you covered. So whether you are familiar with Radiator or considering options for your AAA needs, or just exploring the world of network authentication come stop by and have a chat with us.

If you want to schedule a meeting or simply ask a question, please fill out this form and we will get back to you.

See you in Barcelona!

Thursday, December 22, 2022

Radiator 4.27 now available!

We are pleased to announce the release of Radiator version 4.27!

The main new feature in the release is support for EAP-TLS v. 1.3 - as specified in the RFC 9190. TLS v. 1.3 is available also for RadSec and for all TLS-based EAP methods. TLSv1.3 is disabled by default, but can be turned on by the customer when needed. TLSv1.3 will be enabled by default in future Radiator releases.

At the same time, we continue to monitor TLSv1.3 interoperability with EAP-TTLS and PEAP. At the moment TLSv1.3 session resumption is disabled because of interoperability problems. To help with this, we are participating in IETF work that aims to solve the pending issues.

In addition, significant update work for LDAP connection and TLS debugging has been made - as well as support for different Linux distributions.
For other new features, enhancements, interoperability, and bug fixes, please see below.
Selected compatibility notes, enhancements and fixes

  • Significant LDAP updates to connection and TLS handling.
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 and its derivatives are now supported.
  • Ubuntu 22.04 is now supported.
  • Session resumption is enabled for EAP-TLS with TLSv1.3 but remains disabled for the other TLS based EAP methods.
  • TLSv1.3 is supported by EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP but remains disabled by default.
  • TLSv1.3 is tested with RadSec and other Stream modules but remains disabled by default.
  • Radiator can log TLS key material to a file to allow fully decrypting EAP and Stream SSL/TLS sessions.
  • TLS handshake and state trace logging is now enabled for EAP and Stream modules, such as PEAP and RadSec, when Trace 4 (debugging) or PacketTrace is configured.
  • Radiator SIM Pack 2.7 and Carrier Pack 1.7, or later, are strongly recommended.


Known caveats and other notes

  • TLSv1.3 remains disabled by default for TLS based EAP methods and Stream based classes, such as RadSec. TLSv1.3 testing reports are welcome.
  • Fix and enhance EAP-FAST. Requires Net::SSLeay 1.94 or later with OpenSSL 1.1.1 and later.

More detailed changes can be found in the revision history.

Radiator packages are available to download for current licensees from the downloads page and the Radiator repository.

Would you like to know more?

If you like to know more about Radiator, the new release and how it can help you in your use case, you can always contact our team at info(a)

Monday, December 12, 2022

Offline TOTP implementation with Radiator AAA Server and Windows Server

Recently, we have had multiple customer cases in the need of offline TOTP (time-based one-time password) implementations. Both private enterprises and public institutions working on different fields have discovered an increasing need for offline multi-factor authentication to protect their critical infrastructure. These use cases include for example power companies, transport infrastructure and other use cases that are used in private networks, and where secure authentication is essential at all times.

Many of these customers use Windows Server and Microsoft SQL server in their implementations, so we wanted to share how Radiator AAA Server Software can be used with them when implementing an offline TOTP solution. And as clarified below, given the flexibility of Radiator, other platforms can be used as well⁠—do not hesitate to contact us with your own specific use case in your own infrastructure.

How it is done

We have had a working example in the Radiator goodies directory that can be leveraged to individual needs:

totp.cfg and totp.sql
Sample configuration file for Radiator, showing how to authenticate using TOTP (RFC 6238) one-time-passwords. The sample MySQL database schema provides test users, with and without a PIN.
Supporting script for generating secret values for TOTP and printing them in different text formats and as QR code images.

The existing example is using SQL definitions specific to MySQL and MariaDB database servers. As Radiator is flexible, the same functionality can be achieved on any supported OS and with any database. Here we show how to set up a similar system with Windows Server 2012 to 2022 and Microsoft SQL Server 2012 to 2022, with Radiator AAA Server Software (current version 4.26). The new Windows-specific configuration shown here will also be included in the goodies of the oncoming release of Radiator soon.

To start with, we expect the system with Windows Server is already installed and hardened as needed. Also, installing Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio is out of scope of this post. You can try this TOTP setup out also on a standard desktop Windows version and free SQL Server Express (

After the prerequisites are met, the next step is to download and install the rest of the needed software packages:

ODBC Driver for SQL Server

Radiator AAA Server Software, Radiator Windows MSI installer

After creating a new ODBC data source (be sure to select a 64-bit driver on 64-bit environments), you can test if the DSN is available to Radiator by running a small test script. Start the command shell with correct environment settings by selecting Radiator configuration from the Start menu and then clicking Perl command line. Save and run the following script on the server. The script lists all DSNs it finds, and if you see the newly created DSN, everything is OK.

# List available data sources
# Example run:
# C:\> perl
# - dbi:ODBC:<datasourcename1>
# - dbi:ODBC:<datasourcename2>

use strict;
use DBI;
my @dsns = DBI->data_sources('ODBC');
foreach my $d (@dsns)
  print "- $d\n";

If you want to generate TOTP secrets with you also need to install the following new modules. The command cpanm makes it easy if you're connected to the internet:

cpanm MIME::Base32
cpanm Imager::QRCode

You can also download the modules manually (check for the latest versions), for example:
and install them from local files like:

cpanm MIME-Base32-1.303.tar.gz
cpanm Imager-QRCode-0.035.tar.gz
Create the database and grant the needed privileges to the user (SELECT and UPDATE). Here's the table definition with SQL Server specific field types. The definition is stripped from comments for brevity, and some fields are optional. Please see goodies for full details.
  id              INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1),
  active          BIT DEFAULT 0,
  created         DATETIME NOT NULL,
  accessed        DATETIME NOT NULL,
  username        VARCHAR(100) UNIQUE NOT NULL,
  tokenId         TEXT,
  pin             TEXT,
  secret          VARCHAR(130) UNIQUE NOT NULL,
  digits          INT DEFAULT 6,
  bad_logins      INT DEFAULT 0,
  last_timestep   INT,
  algorithm       TEXT NOT NULL,
  timestep        INT DEFAULT 30,
  timestep_origin INT DEFAULT 0,
Insert some example data ( we use 6-digit codes for broader compatibility, and here's only some of the records):
    '3132333435363738393031323334353637383930', 6, 0, NULL, 'SHA1', 30, 0);
    6, 0, NULL, 'SHA512', 30, 0);
INSERT INTO totpkeys VALUES (1, GETUTCDATE(), GETUTCDATE(), 'fred', NULL, 'fred',
    '1111111111111111111111111111111111111111', 6, 0, NULL, 'SHA1', 30, 0);
Then we make modifications to the example TOTP configuration. Change the DBSource name (DSN) and credentials as needed in the <AuthBy SQLTOTP> block. Also, AuthSelect and UpdateQuery are modified with SQL Server syntax:
  DBSource    dbi:ODBC:totp
  DBUsername  totp
  DBAuth      fred

  AuthSelect SELECT secret, active, pin, digits, bad_logins, DATEDIFF(s, '1970-01-01', accessed), \
                    last_timestep, algorithm, timestep, timestep_origin FROM totpkeys WHERE username=?
  AuthSelectParam %0

  UpdateQuery UPDATE totpkeys SET accessed=GETUTCDATE(), bad_logins=?, last_timestep=? WHERE username=?
  UpdateQueryParam %0
  UpdateQueryParam %2
  UpdateQueryParam %1
Update the configuration otherwise as needed (ie. make sure paths are correct to your setup, etc.), and set Trace 4 to see the interesting information during testing. (Re)start the Radiator server process to make sure the new configuration will be used, and then you can try your new setup. Importing the keys to your TOTP application can be done with the help of script. If you use the predefined examples, you can get the QR codes by running it like
C:\Radiator>perl -accountname "mikem" -issuer "Organisation" \
    -algorithm SHA1 -hex_secret "3132333435363738393031323334353637383930" -digits 6 \
    -image_format gif -qrcode_file \temp\mikem.gif

TOTP key to insert into Radiator database: 3132333435363738393031323334353637383930
Writing QR code file \temp\mikem.gif

You can also create new keys by leaving out the -hex_secret parameter and insert the generated hex string into the database.

Then use your preferred method to display the generated QR code image (MS Paint or web browser are fine) and scan the key into your TOTP application. Microsoft and Google have their authenticators available for mobile devices, and Apple's mobile devices have the feature built-in. There's also a free alternative FreeOTP with an open source codebase:

After getting your authenticator app set up you're ready for your first TOTP authentication using radpwtst on command line. Replace the password with your time-based response:

perl radpwtst -noacct -user mikem -password 751352
Or if static PIN is used, here PIN "fred" is prefixed to TOTP one-time-password:
perl radpwtst -noacct -user fred -password fred755224

If everything goes as expected you'll see the Access-Accept response on radpwtst's output, and also on the Radiator server's log. And if something fails, the log can be used to pin-point the problem.
This example is just basic password authentication (PAP). You can now change and expand the configuration to enable more elaborate TOTP RADIUS authentication to your devices or software as needed.

Would you like to know more?

If you want to know more how offline TOTP can be implemented for your use case and solution with Radiator, please do not hesitate to contact us. We can always be reached via email at

Wednesday, November 16, 2022

Radiator team take part in RADIUS extensions working group reboot

With the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) standard in its early 30s, it continues to be the go-to protocol for network authentication use cases. With the IETF drafting RADIUS protocol’s standard RFC 2058 in the year 1997, RADIUS has seen continuous development even though Diameter (RFC 6733) was developed to be its intended successor. Since then, RADIUS has held a strong ground in networking authentication and Diameter has become de facto standard in the TELCO field.

RADIUS is still alive and the way to keep it current with the latest security requirements such as TLS 1.3 is by cooperation of many players in the field in joint standardisation of the protocol. Last week our technical team took part in the reboot of the RADIUS extensions working group at IETF 115 meeting in London.

Some highlights from the proposed future agenda for standardisation are updating RFC 6614 RADIUS over TLS (RadSec) and developing RADIUS protocol and extensions further towards current security requirements: for example SRadius draft, Extended ID and Reverse Change of Authorisation over RadSec.

What is SRadius?

SRadius is essentially a RADIUS packet transport profile, which would mandate TLS transport and remove the previous reliance on MD5 attribute obfuscation and packet signing. This is an important change as MD5 has been proven insecure (RFC 6151) and should no longer be used. SRadius implementation would then be FIPS-140 compliant while old RADIUS is not.

Why RADIUS should be secured with TLS?

Even with the use of current EAP authentication methods, RADIUS accounting messages can and are still sent in plain text format. This accounting information can include sensitive information such as user location attributes, which are open to eavesdropping by man-in-the-middle attacks without any encryption in-between. RADIUS over TLS protocol (RadSec, RFC 6614) tunnels this information with TLS. Both RadSec and SRadius secure the transport with TLS.

The working group reboot received interest and positive feedback from many stakeholders in the field working on both commercial and non-commercial RADIUS projects. There is unanimous support across the field that rebooting the RADIUS extensions working group is necessary for the future development of RADIUS. We are looking forward to working on RADIUS drafts and standards and implementing them in Radiator.

Want to know more?

Friday, November 4, 2022

Radiator Service Provider Pack 1.8 released!

We are happy to announce that Radiator Service Provider Pack (formerly known as Radiator Carrier Pack) has been released!

The main new development is a new Diameter relay functionality. With Diameter relay, incoming Diametet traffic load can be distributed to multiple instances. The workers can be optionally made visible only as a single Diameter node to the rest of the Diameter nodes. This enhances Diameter performance when Radiator is used as 3GPP AAA server or in other use cases. For the relay functionality, we have also provided configuration examples, for Radiator SIM Pack, Radiator 3GPP AAA Server and Radiator Policy and Charging Pack.

At the same time, new release contains performance enhancements for Diameter protocol and enhanced logging for Diameter request and answers messages. More info can be found out from Radiator Service Provider Pack revision history.

Would you like to know more?

If you would like to know more about Radiator Service Provider Pack and how it could be used in your use case, please contact our team at info(a)

Friday, October 28, 2022

Using Radiator as the flexible, powerful AAA for FTTH service providers

Recently, we have seen a big rise in the number with projects where service providers are implementing new FTTH (Fibre to the Home) services – using different PON (Passive optical network) technologies, such as GPON, XG-PON1, XGS-PON. Based on different estimates for consumer services in the industry, high-performance fibre access is needed more than ever.

Because of this, one the most common new use cases for Radiator AAA server software, and especially to our Radiator Service Provider Pack is the flexible and high-powered AAA for FTTH operators – that may also run fixed line and WiFi hotspot operations at the same time. With our flexible licensing options, these Radiator installations can be run either by service providers themselves, or they can use a managed service provided by a 3rd party.

Often these enterprise use cases also include private APN (Access Point Name) service for their enterprise customers. We are happy to tell more about our experiences on providing Radiator to different environments and use cases.

With the experience from a wide range of use cases, the key benefit of Radiator is flexibility in different network infrastructures – especially when integrating AAA with different technological generations. Readymade configurations are available, as well as support for different back-ends and logging and management solutions. As we are actively participating in different standardisation efforts, Radiator is always up-to-date with the latest industry practices and security developments.

Would you like to know more? 

We are always happy to help you with your use case. Please contact our sales team at sales(a) for more information.

Tuesday, September 27, 2022

Radiator Policy and Charging Pack - apply credit control for your prepaid and postpaid data plans

One of our key products for service providers is Radiator Policy and Charging Pack.

Radiator Policy and Charging Pack extends Radiator by allowing direct connections to your 3GPP infrastructure through Diameter interfaces - a protocol commonly used in telecommunication networks.

The existing authentication, authorization and accounting features in Radiator are available for Diameter – RADIUS integration in Radiator Policy of Charging Pack. With this, examples of use include Wi-Fi offloading, integrating Diameter online and offline charging with RADIUS based infrastructure, integrating RADIUS accounting with Diameter online and offline charging - and much more.

How it is used by our customers

In many use cases operators and carriers have a need to expand their mobile data coverage with Wi-Fi hotspots and other Wi-Fi networks where authentication can be connected to their infrastructure with roaming. This way they can complement their mobile service with for example Wi-Fi offloading or Voice over WiFi  - at the same time keeping in track the data use of their subscribers.

With its RADIUS to Diameter conversion, Radiator Policy and Charging pack enables you to apply credit control in your network using RADIUS accounting, both with prepaid and postpaid data plans. When using prepaid data plans, the credit control features will enforce that subscriber data is limited to the amount they have paid.

Also, the credit control policies can be done in a way that the end of quota will be handled based on your business needs. For example, the customer network access can be throttled and directed to purchase additional data for renewed access. 

On more technical level, the functionality is shown in the flowchart below. Please note, how Radiator Policy and Charging Pack is situated to integrate RADIUS and Diameter interfaces, and is connected to WiFi controllers or BNG devices and with Online Charging System (OCS) or with Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF).

Flow chart showing the credit control functionality of Radiator Policy and Charging Pack

As Radiator Policy and Charging Pack is highly extensible for different customer cases, we are happy to tell you more about how your use case can be implemented. In addition, it can be integrated with other Radiator products (such Radiator SIM Pack for EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA and EAP-AKA' authentication), and we are happy to share our expertise in this as well.

Woud you like to know more?

If you would like to know more about Radiator Policy and Charging Pack and how it can be used in your use case, please contact our team at info(a)